Abhayrab is a lyophilized, purified, inactivated Rabies vaccine that contain inactivated rabies virus (L. Pasteur 2061 Nero Strain propagated in Vero cells). Thiomersal is used as preservative.
Rabies is an acute viral disease which causes fatal encephalomyelitis in virtually all the warm blooded animals including man. The virus can be found in the wild and some domestic animals and it is transmitted through their saliva (i.e. bites, scratches, licks on broken skin and mucous membrane) to other animals and humans.
Indications: Abhayrab is indicated in people who are at higher risk of developing rabies. It is widely used to prevent and treat rabies.
For Intramuscular Vaccination:
Pre-Exposure: 0.5 mL or 1.0 mL of reconstituted vaccine (as per diluent supplied) on days 0, 7 and 21 or 28. Only people, whose occupation puts them at continual or frequent risk of exposure, should receive periodic booster doses whenever the rabies virus neutralizing antibody titre drops below 0.5 IU/mL.
Post-Exposure: For a new case: 0.5 mL or 1.0 mL of reconstituted vaccine (as per diluent supplied) on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28.
Rabies immunoglobulin should be administered preferably as soon as possible after initiation of post-exposure prophylaxis in case of Category III bites but not beyond 7 days from the first dose of vaccination.
For previously immunized individuals: One dose (0.5 mL or 1.0 mL, as per diluent supplied) of reconstituted vaccine intramuscularly at one site on day 0 and day 3. The administration of Rabies immunoglobulin is not required in such cases.
Abhayrab may cause the following adverse effects
- Mild pain, rash, and redness at the site of injection
- Muscle pain
In rare cases, abhayrab may cause high fever, arthritis, lymphadenopathy, and anaphylaxis.
- Concurrent use of immunosuppressive agents like corticosteroids should be avoided as it may hamper the development of protective antibodies.
- When anti-rabies immunoglobulin is recommended along with the first dose of rabies vaccination, it has to be administered with a different syringe, needle and at a site different and away from the site of vaccination.
- Intramuscular route must be used in cases of immunocompromised/ immunosuppressed individuals and those on antimalarial medications. They should also receive RIG in Category II bites.
- Delay in the commencement of post-bite therapy, incomplete and irregular therapy can cause failure of vaccination and inadequate protection against rabies.
- Vaccine should never be administered into the gluteal region, where absorption is unpredictable.
- As with any injectable vaccine, hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis can occur with abhayrab and thus inj. Adrenaline (1:1000) and other medications including anti-histamines should be readily available during vaccination.
- Alcohol and other disinfecting agents must be allowed to evaporate from the skin before injection of the vaccine.
- The vaccine recipients should be kept under medical supervision for at least 30 minutes after vaccination to monitor for any undesirable effects.
Abhayrab is contraindicated in the following conditions:
- Severe febrile seizures
- Acute or chronic illness
- Hypersensitivity to any of the components present in the vaccine